• Tue. Feb 27th, 2024

A massive galaxy with almost no dark matter

A massive galaxy with almost no dark matter

According to our dominant cosmological models, about 85% of the mass in the universe is dark matter. Although attempts to study this mysterious and invisible mass have not yielded any direct evidence, astronomers have been able to measure its influence by observation. Dark matter halos, Gravitational lenses, and the effect of general relativity on large-scale cosmic structures. With the help of next generation missions like ESA Euclid and NASA Nancy Grace Roman Space Telescopes, Dark Matter Won’t Be Mysterious For Longer!

And then comes something like this: a massive galaxy with little or no dark matter! This is what a team of astronomers led by members of the Instituto Astrofisica de Canarias (IAC) noticed when they observed NGC 1277. Located 240 million light-years away in the constellation Perseus, this lenticular galaxy is several times more massive than the Milky Way. This is the first discovery of a massive galaxy that shows no signs of dark matter, posing a serious challenge to our current cosmological models.

The research was led by Sebastian Comoronis an extragalactic astronomer at the Universidad de la Laguna (ULL) and leader of the IAC. The artifact of thick discs (Arc Thick) Cooperation. He was joined by researchers from the Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica, Óptica y Electronica (INAOE), the Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnologia, the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, and the Institute for Massicosmos (ARXCOSMOY). PA), multiple universities. The paper describing their findings recently appeared in the journal Astronomy and astronomy.

Hubble Space Telescope image of the NGC 1277 member galaxy group in the Perseus cluster. This is the bright galaxy at the center left of the image. Credit: ESA/Hubble

According to the Standard Model of Cosmology – Aka. The Lambda is cold dark matter (?CDM) model – dark matter played (and still does) an intrinsic role in the formation and evolution of the cosmos. In theory, this invisible mass existed shortly after the Big Bang and formed halos that attracted neutral hydrogen gas to the rotating disks. This gas was thrown into denser, denser clouds, which led to the formation of the first stars and galaxies. Today, the DM is an important component of all massive galaxies, as evidenced by their rotation curves, the lenses they create, and interactions with the surrounding stars and the intergalactic medium (IGM).

However, when the team measured the mass distribution of NGC 1277, they only observed the star’s distribution. From this, they inferred that the DM could not account for more than 5% of the galaxy’s mass within the observed distance – their observations suggest that the DM may not exist. As Cameron recently explained IAC press release:

“This result is inconsistent with currently accepted models of the universe, which includes dark matter. We decided to observe NGC 1277 with an integral field spectrograph because of the importance of relic galaxies in helping us understand how the first galaxies formed. From the spectra, we made dynamical maps that enabled us to work out the distribution of mass within the galaxy within about 20,000 light-years.

In their paper, the team describes NGC 1277 as a prototype “relic galaxy,” an extremely rare class that does not interact with neighboring galaxies. These galaxies are believed to be the remnants of giant galaxies that formed shortly after the Big Bang. However, the ?CDM model predicts at least 10% of galaxies like NGC 1277 to be DM, up to a maximum of 70% for this particular type. Said Co-author Anna Ferré-Matthieu, researcher at IAC and ULL, has two possible explanations for this discrepancy.:

“One is that the gravitational interaction with the surrounding medium within the galaxy cluster in which this galaxy resides has removed the dark matter. Another is that dark matter was ejected from the system as the galaxy formed by merging protogalactic fragments that gave rise to the remnant galaxy.

This diagram shows how the diameter of the 17-billion-solar-mass black hole at the heart of the galaxy NGC 1277 compares with the orbit of Neptune around the Sun. Credit: D. Benningfield/K. Gebhardt/StarDate

For the team, however, none of these explanations is entirely satisfactory. In the near future, the team plans to investigate the mystery further by making observations WHT Enhanced Area Velocity Explorer (WEAVE) device William Herschel Telescope (WHT), located at the Roque de los Muchachos Observatory on the island of La Palma. If WEAVE’s velocity measurements confirm that NGC 1277 does not have a DM, it will cast serious doubt on the alternative theory – modified Newtonian dynamics (MOND). Said Trujillo:

“This discrepancy between observations and what we expect is a puzzle, even a challenge to the Standard Model. Even if a particular galaxy loses dark matter, the modified law of gravity should be universal and has no exceptions, so a galaxy without dark matter is a rejection of these alternatives to dark matter.

These observations can shed more light on the galaxy’s particular mass of 17 billion solar masses (SMBH), or 4,250 times that of Sagittarius (the SMBH at the center of the Milky Way)! According to some astronomers, black holes may be the source of DM, which formed from the collapse of DM haloes in the early universe. There is also the mystery of dark matter galaxies, which are almost entirely DM, such as the curious case of FAST J0139+4328.

Like next generation missions Euclid as well as Nancy Grace Roman By examining the expansion of the universe since the Big Bang, space telescopes will provide new insight. These observations aim to measure the influence of dark matter (dark energy) on the largest cosmic scales. The results of these and other studies could resolve the ongoing debate by revealing whether a mysterious invisible mass exists or whether we need to revise our understanding of gravity (as described by general relativity).

For further reading: I.A.C, Astronomy and astronomy

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